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Pepper cultivation was introduced in Madagascar at the beginning of the 20th century by the Frenchman Émile Prudhomme after a mission in Java. He was the director of the National Institute for Colonial Agronomy and in 1899 in an agricultural notice he wrote: "Until now, there have been no serious attempts at cultivating pepper in Madagascar, however there is every reason to believe that this vine should thrive on a large part of the East coast." Pepper was first introduced in Nossi-Be and then spread to Sambirano.

In Madagascar, pepper is harvested twice a year in May/June and then in October/November.