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The pepper in all its forms

The pepper in all its forms

History and Botany
The pepper, or Capsicum annuum, originates from the heart of the highly fertile Amazon basin, one of the richest natural reserves on Earth. Quickly, as birds are insensitive to its burning effect, pepper transitioned and proliferated throughout South America, Central America, and Mexico. The consumption of pepper seems to date back to around 7000 BC. It was used by pre-Columbian civilizations to spice up their dishes. Pepper arrived in Europe following the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus. Captivated by the organoleptic qualities of pepper, the explorer brought it back to Europe as a substitute for the expensive pepper of the time. The pepper family includes bell peppers, paprika, and hot peppers. They all belong to the botanical branch of Solanaceae, just like tomatoes, potatoes, and eggplants. The cultivated cultivation of pepper has given rise to various varieties. Today, nearly 2,300 varieties of pepper are listed in the European catalog of species and varieties. Among these varieties, five major species of Capsicum stand out: annuum, baccatum, chinense, frutescens, and pubescens.
The cultivation of peppers
The cultivation of peppers is primarily done in warm and oceanic climates. Peppers require a lot of heat to thrive and cannot tolerate frost. They particularly thrive in soils that are rich in humus, loose, and deep, allowing for the development of their powerful root system, which can reach depths of up to 90 cm. Peppers also require ample sunlight. The cultivation of peppers is similar to that of vineyards. Factors such as soil geology, plot exposure, row orientation, and weather conditions have a strong impact on the quality and flavors of peppers. Peppers are typically green and turn red when they ripen. They are mostly harvested at this stage, but they can also be picked and consumed before they fully turn red. In France, particularly in Espelette, pepper harvesting begins in August and lasts until early December, before the first frosts occur.
The Scoville Scale
It was pharmacologist Wilbur Scoville who invented the Scoville Scale in 1912 as a measurement to determine the heat level of peppers and chili peppers. The heat level is generally linked to the capsaicin content in the pepper. To establish his classification, Wilbur Scoville would test a solution of pepper on five individuals. As long as the sensation of heat remained, he would increase the dilution. The score on the scale represents the level of dilution required to completely eliminate the spicy sensation.
Everything you need to know about peppers in videos.
The collection.
Ancho chilli pepper

The Ancho pepper is a mild and flavorful chili with fruity notes of licorice. It is ideal for sauces and slow-cooked dishes. It adds a touch of originality to vegetable purees, homemade gazpacho, or grilled meat. Scoville scale: 4 (mild).

Chipotle chilli pepper

The Chipotle pepper is a green chili pepper originating from Mexico. It is a favorite pepper among both Americans and Mexicans. Its powerful and fresh flavors enhance even the simplest dishes. This Mexican pepper ranks at 5/10 (hot) on the Scoville scale.

Ring of fire chilli pepper

After harvest, these delicate angel hair-like strands are used to decorate and enhance your plates, salads, and verrines. Scoville scale: 5/10 (hot).

Aleppo chili pepper flakes

Alep pepper develops fruity and sweet aromas. Its spiciness is pronounced yet moderate, making it easy to use in cooking. Aleppo pepper pairs perfectly with oriental recipes, ratatouilles, fish, and white meats. Scoville scale: 6/10 (hot).

Pequin chilli pepper

Pequin pepper is native to Mexico. Small and round, this pepper belongs to the "ornamental peppers" or "bird peppers" category. It is very hot and has subtle and fruity notes. Pequin pepper will be the perfect partner for your chili con carne and grilled meats.

Amazon chilli pepper
The Amazonian pepper, originating from Colombia, is extremely hot. It is one of the spiciest peppers. Its fruity notes and subtle acidity resemble the Tabasco hot pepper. Its pale yellow color is due to its harvest before full maturity. In cuisine, it will enhance exotic sauce dishes or even dips.
Wiri wiri chilli pepper
Cousin of Cayenne pepper, originating from Guyana, the Wiri Wiri pepper is red and round. It grows vertically in a humid and hot climate at the edge of the tropical forest. Its resemblance to cherries has earned it the nickname "cherry pepper". Intensely flavored, it has hints of tomatoes. It should be used with caution to add fragrance to your stews, soups, and sauces.
A few handy tips to get the best from your chili peppers:
The use of peppers in cuisine.
Some recipes to try
Chilli con carne
Green mango salad spicy
Chilli oil
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